Vascular surgery is a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries, veins and lymphatic circulation, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures and surgical reconstruction. The specialty evolved from general and cardiac surgery and includes treatment of the body’s other major and essential veins and arteries. Open surgery techniques, as well as endovascular techniques are used to treat vascular diseases. The vascular surgeon is trained in the diagnosis and management of diseases affecting all parts of the vascular system excluding the coronaries and intracranial vasculature. Vascular surgeons often assist other physicians to address traumatic vascular injury, hemorrhage control, and safe exposure of vascular structures.